ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • After-School Worries: Tough on Parents, Bad for Business (2006)
    In this report, Catalyst and the Community, Families & Work Program at Brandeis University go behind the office door to learn more about factors that contribute to that stress. They offer a deep analysis of one stressor in particular: parental concern about what their children are doing after school.
  • Now Hear This: The Nine Laws of Successful Advocacy Communications (2001)
    This document is not intended as a blueprint for creating communications campaigns, but offers a way for nonprofits to think about campaigns from a strategic marketing and communications perspective. It contains advice from more than 25 leading experts - "no nonsense" voices of communications professionals and advocates for social change.
  • After-School Programs Prevent Crime (2009)http://outofschooltime2.unitedway.org/_img/16.jpg
    Fight Crime: Invest in Kids is an advocacy organization primarily composed of law enforcement officials that pushes for policy changes to reduce the incidence of youth violence and to help children and youth avoid becoming victims of crime. They advocate for increasing access to out-of-school time programs when school is out as part of a broader policy platform. This Fact Sheet briefly synthesizes research showing that after-school programs reduce crime by offering constructive alternatives to gangs and drugs during the hours immediately after school - the peak hours for juvenile crime.
  • Investments in Building Citywide Out-of-School-Time Systems: A Six-City Study (2009)
    This report serves as a companion to a previous resource developed by Private/Public Ventures and The Finance Project: The Cost of Quality Out-of-School-Time Programs (included in the quality section of this toolkit), which provides detailed information on both the average out-of-pocket expenditures and the average full cost of a wide range of quality out-of-school time programs. This report builds on these resources by providing a conceptual framework of systems building in out-of-school time and discussing the strategies and system-level investments made to support out-of-school time programming in the same six cities where the authors previously gathered program-cost data. Based on their research the authors suggest that cities studies invested in four major components of out-of-school time infrastructure by: providing community leadership and vision; improving program quality; expanding access to and participation in quality programs; and financing and sustaining quality programs.
  • Making the Case: A 2008 Fact Sheet on Children and Youth In Out-of-School Time (2009)
    This summary fact sheet discusses the role that out-of-school time programs can play to support children and youth by offering opportunities for enrichment (e.g. arts, music, physical education), character development, career and college counseling; and new learning experiences (e.g. experiential learning, service learning) and synthesizes research (based on program evaluations) on the social, emotional, academic and health benefits of participation in high-quality, structured out-of-school time programs. The fact sheet also discusses how children and youth spend their time outside of school; reflects on the current funding landscape; and offers suggestions for strengthening program quality.
  • More Than a Hunch: Kids Lose Learning Skills Over the Summer Months (2009)
    This brief presents reflections by Harris Cooper, a well-known researcher on summer learning loss, on the results and policy implications of his research. Cooper asserts that all students lose math skills over the summer, but middle class students sustain their reading level while low-income students experience declines. In addition, summer learning programs have significant positive effects, but these effects are greatest for middle class students - a finding he suggests may reflect differences in funding and resources available in middle class communities or the difficulty of addressing serious achievement gaps in the summer months. Cooper suggests that policymakers: allow for local development of programs, incorporate math and reading into program curricula, and rigorously evaluate program effects.
  • Summer Can Set Kids on the Right—or Wrong—Course (2009)
    http://outofschooltime2.unitedway.org/_img/17.jpg In this brief, Johns Hopkins sociology Professor Karl Alexander reflects on research conducted with colleagues demonstrating significant summer learning loss, particularly for low-income youth. According to Alexander, these losses pile up, contributing to an achievement gap that can make the difference between whether students set out on a path for college or decide to drop out of high school. Two of Alexander's key research findings: (1) lower income children enter school with lower achievement levels, but progress about the same rate as their middle/high income peers - yet during the summer months they "tread water" or fall behind — this constitutes the "summer slide"; and (2) summer learning loss accounts for about two-thirds of the difference in the likelihood of pursuing a college preparatory path in high school.
  • Summertime and Weight Gain (2009)
    In this brief, Ohio State University statistician Paul von Hippel discusses research documenting significant weight gain of school-aged youth during the summer months when school is out. According to Hippel and his fellow researchers, students gain weight two to three times faster in the summer months than during the regular school year. Hippel suggests that summer learning programs can partially help to address the issue by providing additional opportunities for exercise and physical activity, limiting opportunities to eat, and decreasing the amount of time that children and youth spend unsupervised during the day.
  • POST: Partnership for Out-of-School Time Landscape Mapping Survey Report (2011)
    Mapping the availability and location of out-of-school time programs in a community is an important aspect of making an informed case for continued and/or increased funding. This PowerPoint documents the work of the United Way of Greater Richmond and Petersburg (UWGRP) as part of Richmond's Partnership for Out-of-School Time (POST). POST developed an actionable agenda, detailing the strategies necessary to increase collaboration and improve the quality and availability of out-of-school time programs in the community. The mapping study, undertaken by UWGRP on behalf of POST, stemmed from the need to know more about the out-of-school time landscape in order to execute strategies outlined in their action agenda. The PowerPoint summarizes the mapping survey research design and synthesizes the key findings based on the 141 programs represented in the study.
  • Strengthening Partnerships and Building Public Will for Out-of-School Time Programs (2011)
    Mayors and other municipal leaders recognize the important of out-of-school time programs as one important mechanism for supporting key educational goals, improving health and public safety, and supporting a future workforce. This guide highlights three key strategies that mayors and other city leaders can use to promote partnerships and build public will in support of out-of-school time
    http://outofschooltime2.unitedway.org/_img/18.jpg programs:
    • Engage and involve a broad set of partners to take full advantage of all community resources;
    • Keep out-of-school time on the public agenda; and
    • Lead efforts by city, school and community leaders to establish a common set of outcomes and a shared vision for out-of-school time.

    The guide includes profiles of 27 cities to help illustrate these strategies in action and advances these strategies as building blocks in citywide out-of-school time systems that can support and sustain programs throughout the community.

  • Summer Snapshot: Exploring the Impact of Higher Achievement's Year-Round Out-of-School-Time Program on Summer Learning (2011)
    Higher Achievement provides multi-year comprehensive out-of-school time programming to rising fifth and sixth graders in Washington, DC; Baltimore, MD; and Alexandria, VA. This randomized control study (students were randomly assigned to participate in the program) showed that program participants fared better than non-participants in terms of their scores on standardized tests; participation in academic and summer activities; and enjoyment in learning. The study did not show any significant impact on the academic progress of participants over the summer months. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that the results demonstrate that it is possible to provide programming for older youth that keeps them engaged and sustains their interest and participation over time. It also concludes that programs like Higher Achievement can help provide opportunities (e.g. visits to local high schools, exposure to careers, and enrichment activities) which can ultimately increase student educational attainment.
  • Finding Out What Matters for Youth: Testing Key Links in a Community Action Framework for Youth Development (2003)
    Using data from several longitudinal data sets representing diverse populations of young people, this study addresses the questions that policy makers and funders often ask: How well do teens need to be doing to have a solid chance at being successful young adults? How much does doing well at the end of high school really matter for later success? And how much do the touted "supports and opportunities" that families, youth organizations and schools offer really contribute to success by the end of high school? Gambone, president of Youth Development Strategies, Inc., and her colleagues, test the power of three developmental outcomes: being productive (e.g., grades, school engagement and extra-curricular activities), being connected (to peers and adults both in and out of the family) and being able to navigate (e.g., problem-solving and low anti-social behavior). The authors assert that doing well in two out of three developmental areas best positions youth for success on early adulthood, in contrast, having serious problems in two out of three puts them in the risk category. This study is the basis for the work of the Ready by 21 national partnership and is often cited to make the case for out-of-school time and other supports that help to contribute to these developmental outcomes.
  • ELT: Expanding and Enriching Learning Time for All (2009)
    This brief makes the case for expanded learning time by rethinking school structures and schedules. Lucy Friedman, president of the The After-School Corporation (TASC) makes the case for expanding learning time based on her organization's efforts in partnership with New York City Public Schools to increase learning time in 10 schools by at least 30 percent (ELT/NYC). The brief discusses common "core" elements in all ELT/NYC programs, and reflects on lessons learned including the importance of joint planning time for school and program staff; tapping multiple funding streams to support the expanded learning day; and the buy-in of the principal as the single most critical factor for success.